As The Legal Intelligencer is reporting, yesterday the Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court affirmed an order by the Orphans’ Division of the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas prohibiting the City from leasing part of Burholme Park to Fox Chase Cancer Center for use in a substantial expansion of Fox Chase.
Under the agreement, 19.4 acres of the Park would have been leased to Fox Chase for 80 years, with options to renew the lease for up to 80 more years. The bulk of the Park was donated to the City 130 years ago by Robert W. Ryerss for use “as a public park … to be called Burholme Park … for the use and enjoyment of the people forever.”
Most of Philadelphia — including the City Council and Mayor, both of whom approved the lease — seems to believe that the Cancer Center expansion would be a good thing.
But a private cancer center is not “a public park.” Does that matter?
As every law student who takes Wills, Trusts and Estates has drilled into their heads, for hundreds of years, the common laws of England and America have held that little is more important than specific word choices in transfers of real estate, wills, and the establishment of trusts. Fortunes have changed hands — and held protected — on nothing more than a word or a comma.
Although the strict common law rule has waned over the past few decades (consider the relocation of the Barnes Museum), numerous states have passed statutes affirming the same ideas. One such state, as the Commonwealth Court described, is Pennsylvania:
We note that underlying the arguments made in this case is a question as to the continuing viability of the public trust doctrine in light of the [Donated or Dedicated Property Act]. We believe that the DDPA essentially incorporates the common law public trust doctrine by imposing a duty on political subdivisions to ensure that donated or dedicated property held in trust is used for its originally intended purpose, but, at the same time, creates a mechanism by which a political subdivision may be relieved of that duty where the originally intended use of the property is no longer practicable or possible and has ceased to serve the public interest. We discern no intent on the part of the Legislature to allow a political subdivision to change the use of donated or dedicated property where the originally intended use of that property remains practicable or possible and continues to serve the public interest.
And that’s a big problem for Fox Chase Cancer Center and City of Philadelphia:
While we agree that, pursuant to Erie Golf Course, the decision of a political subdivision is entitled to considerable deference, political subdivisions do not have the authority to exceed what is permitted under the DDPA. Section 4 of the DDPA permits a political subdivision to apply to an orphans’ court for relief from fulfilling its duty under Section 3 where, “in the opinion of the political subdivision . . . , the continuation of the original use of the particular property held in trust as a public facility is no longer practicable or possible and has ceased to serve the public interest.” 53 P.S. § 3384 (emphasis added). Thus, based on this statutory language, in order to be relieved of its duty to hold the property as a trustee for the benefit of the public under Section 3, a political subdivision must establish that the original use of the property is: (1) no longer practicable or possible; and (2) has ceased to serve the public interest.
Here, Appellants did not meet either of these requirements. First, Appellants did not establish that the continued use of the Property as parkland is no longer practicable or possible. While the term “practicable” is not defined in the DDPA, this Court has previously relied on that term’s common usage, explaining that “[t]he word ‘practicable’ is defined in Webster’s Third New International Dictionary 1789 (2002) as ‘1: possible to practice or perform: capable of being put into practice, done or accomplished: FEASIBLE . . . .” Erie Golf Course, 963 A.2d at 613. This Court has also recognized that the term “practicable” is not limited to physical feasibility but, rather, also includes financial feasibility. Id. at 613-14. Appellants, here, do not really dispute that the City can physically and financially continue to maintain the Property as part of the Park. Instead of focusing on the practicability of the continued use of the Property as parkland, Appellants focus on the potential negative economic consequences if the Property cannot be used by Fox Chase. While we understand that Fox Chase’s inability to expand at its present location may have negative economic consequences, this is not a consideration for which the DDPA allows the City to obtain relief from its duty to continue holding the Property in trust for its originally intended use as parkland.
(emphasis in original)
It’s hard to see how Philadelphia can get around the DDPA’s strict, conjunctive requirements unless they can convince the Pennsylvania Supreme Court that the DDPA doesn’t even apply. To those expecting a ‘political’ decision by the Court, bear in mind that only two Justices — Castille and McCaffery — are from Philadelphia.
Then again, unlike the common law public trust doctrine, the DDPA is a statute like any other, open to amending or rescinding at the will of the General Assembly and the Governor, the latter indeed being from Philadelphia.